Warner Pacific College

Library Research Guides

Physical Sciences: Citation Guide

General Guide for Physics, Chemistry, and Earth Sciences

When to Use Certain Citation Styles

There are three main citation styles used at Warner Pacific College: MLA, APA, and Chicago/Turabian. The different styles are used in different settings (for example, a history course or a political science course). Whichever style you choose to use, use this style consistently throughout your research paper. 

MLA and APA are considered in-text citation styles. The styles require that you leave a brief citation after the quote or paraphrase, but leave the rest of the citation for the Works Cited (MLA) or References (APA) page at the end of the essay. 

  • MLA style emphasizes the author and the page number of the original source you are citing. It also allows for other scholars to be able to refer to the page of the text that you are citing, which is why it is the preferred style to humanities research. 
  • APA is the style of the American Psychological Association and is common in the social sciences. While APA is also an in-text citation style, it emphasizes the author and year the source was published. This allows for scholars to see how research has evolved over time, rather than an in-depth look at the writing itself. 

The third commonly form of citation is Chicago Style (also known as Turabian Style). It is a footnote style of citation, which provides the source information at the bottom of the page. This style is used commonly in historical research. It allows the scholar to focus upon the information being presented and not to be distracted with the citation information. 

Examples:

  • MLA in-text citation:

Licona's scholarship subverts the notion that zines are produced by mostly white, heterosexual, cis-gendered, middle-class individuals by centering queer creators of color that write and produce zines with the purpose of "advocat[ing] for change based on identified affinities and intersections of oppression, injustice, and inequity" (Licona, 2). 

  • MLA citation:

Licona, A. Zines in Third Space: Radical Cooperation and Borderlands Rhetoric. Albany: State University of New York Press, 2012. 

  • APA in-text citation: 

Licona's scholarship subverts the notion that zines are produced by mostly white, heterosexual, cis-gendered, middle-class individuals by centering queer creators of color that write and produce zines with the purpose of "advocat[ing] for change based on identified affinities and intersections of oppression, injustice, and inequity" (Licona, 2012). 

  • APA citation:

Licona, A. (2012). Zines in Third Space: Radical Cooperation and Borderlands Rhetoric. Albany: State University of New York Press. ‚Äč

  • Chicago style footnote citation:

Licona's scholarship subverts the notion that zines are produced by mostly white, heterosexual, cis-gendered, middle-class individuals by centering queer creators of color that write and produce zines with the purpose of "advocat[ing] for change based on identified affinities and intersections of oppression, injustice, and inequity."¹

  • Chicago style citation:

¹ Licona, A, Zines in Third Space: Radical Cooperation and Borderlands Rhetoric. (Albany: State University of New York Press, 2012), 2.

 

Citation Chart with examples from MLA, APA, and Chicago (Developed by Purdue Online Writing Lab)

How to Write a Standard Essay (Developed by WPC's Academic Success Center)

MLA:

APA:

Chicago: 

Loading

How to Cite in MLA

How to Cite in Chicago/Turbian

How to Prevent Plagarism

How to Cite in APA

How to Write a Research Paper

How to Use Footnotes

Warner Pacific College

Otto F. Linn Library

2210 SE 68th Avenue, Portland, OR 97215